This week’s newsletter describes a proposal for delinked reusable addresses, summarizes how the WabiSabi protocol may be used as an enhanced alternative to payjoin, examines a discussion about adding communication standards to the DLC specification, and looks at renewed discussion about updating LN commitment formats. Also included are our regular sections with summaries of new software releases and release candidates plus descriptions of notable changes to popular Bitcoin infrastructure software.


  • Delinked reusable addresses: Ruben Somsen posted a proposal to the Bitcoin-Dev mailing list for allowing someone to pay a public identifier (“address”) without using that identifier onchain. For example, Alice creates an identifier in the form of a public key, which she posts on her website. Bob is able to use one of his own private keys to transform Alice’s public key into a new Bitcoin address which he uses to pay Alice. Only Alice and Bob have the information necessary to determine that address pays Alice—and only Alice has the information necessary (her private key) to spend funds received to that address. If Carol later goes to Alice’s website and reuses Alice’s public identifier, she would derive a different address to pay Alice, an address which neither Bob nor any other third party could directly determine belonged to Alice.

    Previous schemes for delinked reusable addresses, such as BIP47 reusable payment codes and the unpublished BIP63 stealth addresses, depend on either communication between spender and receiver outside of the block chain or for onchain transactions that contain extra data at increased expense over a regular payment. By contrast, Somsen’s silent payments proposal has no additional overhead compared to a regular transaction.

    The most significant downside of silent payments is that checking for newly-received transactions requires scanning every transaction in every new block. This is something that full nodes already do, but the scheme also requires maintaining information about many transaction’s parent transactions—something many full nodes today don’t do, and which may require considerable extra I/O operations in addition to extra CPU. Restoring a wallet from backup may also be onerous. Although Somsen does describe some possible tradeoffs that could reduce the burdens, it seems unlikely that the scheme would be useful for most light wallets that want to receive payments. However, nearly all wallets would likely be able to add support for sending silent payments with just a few lines of code and no discernible increase in resource requirements. This may allow the costs of the scheme to be borne chiefly by the users who most desire the enhanced privacy it offers to those unable or unwilling to use other mechanisms for preventing address reuse.

    Somsen is seeking feedback on the proposal, including security analysis of its use of cryptography and any suggestions for making it less resource intensive for receivers (without significantly degrading its privacy advantages).

  • WabiSabi alternative to payjoin: several weeks ago, developers of the Wasabi wallet and coinjoin implementation announced a new version on the Bitcoin-Dev mailing list with support for the WabiSabi protocol described in Newsletter #102. The previously-used chaumian coinjoin protocol allowed arbitrary input amounts but only fixed-sized output amounts; the enhanced WabiSabi protocol allows both input and output amounts to be arbitrary values (subject to other constraints, such as limiting the maximum transaction size and obeying the dust limit).

    This week, Max Hillebrand posted a description of how the WabiSabi protocol could be used as an alternative to the payjoin protocol. In standard payjoin, both the sender and the receiver contribute inputs to a transaction and receive outputs. Although each party learns about the other’s inputs and outputs, ownership information on the public block is discombobulated both for the users participating in the payjoin and for other multi-input transactions. Hillebrand’s proposed wormhole 2.0 protocol would use WabiSabi to ensure that neither the spender or receiver of a payment would learn each other’s inputs or outputs (provided the WabiSabi coinjoin contained multiple other parties who respected confidentiality). This would offer even more privacy, although it would require using software that implemented WabiSabi and waiting for a coordinated WabiSabi coinjoin transaction to occur.

  • DLC messaging and networking: Thibaut Le Guilly posted to the DLC-Dev mailing list about improving communication between different DLC implementations. Today, separate implementations are using a variety of different methods to find and communicate with other DLC nodes. These variations prevent nodes using one implementation from interoperating with nodes using a different implementation. Le Guilly notes that the point of having a DLC standard is to allow interoperation, so he suggests adding relevant details to the standard.

    Several details were discussed. In particular, Le Guilly would prefer to re-use elements of the LN specification (BOLTs) when possible. This led to a mention that a recent proposal for upgrading LN channel announcements (see Newsletter #193) that would allow the use of any UTXO for anti-flooding DoS protection (not just UTXOs that look like LN setup transactions) would allow DLCs and other second-layer protocols to use that same anti-DoS protection.

  • Updating LN commitments: Olaoluwa Osuntokun posted to the Lightning-Dev mailing list this week with a follow-up to his previous proposal for upgrading channel commitment formats—or for upgrading any other setting that would affect commitment transactions. See Newsletter #108 for a summary of his previous proposal. The goal is to allow channels to remain open even when new features are added to a channel, such as the ability to use taproot features.

    Osuntokun’s proposal contrasts with an alternative proposal described in BOLTs #868, implemented experimentally in C-Lightning, and mentioned in Newsletter #152. A noteworthy difference between the two proposals is that Osuntokun’s proposal upgrades channels even while new payments (HTLCs) may be proposed, while the BOLTS #868 proposal defines a quiet period during which the upgrade can occur.

Releases and release candidates

New releases and release candidates for popular Bitcoin infrastructure projects. Please consider upgrading to new releases or helping to test release candidates.

  • Bitcoin Core 23.0 RC2 is a release candidate for the next major version of this predominant full node software. The draft release notes list multiple improvements that advanced users and system administrators are encouraged to test before the final release.

  • LND 0.14.3-beta.rc1 is a release candidate with several bug fixes for this popular LN node software.

  • C-Lightning 0.11.0rc1 is a release candidate for the next major version of this popular LN node software.

Notable code and documentation changes

Notable changes this week in Bitcoin Core, C-Lightning, Eclair, LDK, LND, libsecp256k1, Hardware Wallet Interface (HWI), Rust Bitcoin, BTCPay Server, BDK, Bitcoin Improvement Proposals (BIPs), and Lightning BOLTs.

  • Bitcoin Core #24118 adds a new RPC, sendall, which empties a wallet to the benefit of a single recipient address. The call’s options can be used specify additional recipients, specify a subset of the wallet’s UTXO pool to be used as inputs, or to maximize the recipient amount by skipping dust rather than leaving no UTXOs behind. sendall therefore offers a convenient alternative to achieve some applications of the fSubtractFeeAmount argument to other send* RPCs, but fSubtractFeeAmount is still the best option for paying a recipient who is liable for transaction fees.

  • Bitcoin Core #23536 sets validation rules to always enforce taproot whenever segwit is enforced, including validation of historical blocks (except for block 692261 which included a transaction spending a v1 witness output before taproot activated). This buried deployment has also been done for P2SH and segwit soft forks (see Newsletter #60); it simplifies testing and code review, mitigates some risk of potential bugs in deployment code, and offers belt-and-suspenders protection for extreme scenarios in which a node downloads an alternative most-work block chain where taproot has not activated.

  • Bitcoin Core #24555 and Bitcoin Core #24710 add documentation for running Bitcoin Core over the CJDNS network (see Newsletter #175).

  • C-Lightning #5013 adds the ability to administer a node using gRPC with mTLS authentication.

  • C-Lightning #5121 updates the invoice RPC with a new deschash parameter that will include the hash of arbitrary data in the BOLT11 invoice rather than a short description string. This is supported by schemes such as LNURL that can send large descriptions (including data like images) through a separate communication channel without BOLT11’s constraints.

  • Eclair #2196 adds a channelbalances API that lists the balance of all the node’s channels, including channels that have been disabled.

  • LND #6263 adds support for taproot keypath spends to LND’s wallet, which may now be tested using the default signet.

  • Libsecp256k1 #1089 renames the secp256k1_schnorrsig_sign() function to ..._sign32(), making it clearer that this function signs 32-byte messages (e.g. a SHA256 hash digest). This is in contrast to the secp256k1_schnorrsig_sign_custom() function which signs an arbitrary-length message (see Newsletter #157 for additional discussion).

  • Rust Bitcoin #909 adds support for creating optimal taproot scriptpath trees using huffman coding by passing in the probability that a particular script path will be used.

  • LDK #1388 adds default support for creating ECDSA signatures that are smaller than average by finding a value that can be encoded more compactly, a process previously implemented in the wallets for Bitcoin Core and C-Lightning (see Newsletters #8 and #71). This low-r grinding will save roughly 0.125 vbytes per LDK peer in onchain transactions.