“Additive batching” is a scheme in which additional outputs are added to unconfirmed transactions in the mempool. This field report outlines efforts CardCoins has taken in introducing a reorg- and DoS-safe implementation of such a scheme in its customer payout workflow.

Replace By Fee (RBF, BIP125) and batching are two important tools for any enterprises directly interacting with Bitcoin’s mempool. Fees go up, fees go down, but the business must always fight for fee efficiency.

Each tool, while powerful, has its own complexities and nuances. For example, batching customer withdrawals may save on fees for the enterprise, but will likely make child pays for parent (CPFP) uneconomical for a customer who wishes to speed up the transaction. Similarly, RBF is useful for an enterprise who takes a fee-underbidding strategy (their initial transaction broadcast starts at a low fee, and is slowly bid upwards), but it exposes their customers to potential confusion as their withdrawal transaction updates in their wallet. It would also be messy for the customer to spend from this transaction while it remains unconfirmed, as the enterprise will have to pay for this child spend when attempting to replace the parent. Even worse, the enterprise may have a withdrawal pinned by another service which received the customer’s withdrawal.

When combining these two tools, a service provider unlocks new functionality but is similarly exposed to novel forms of complexity. In the base case, combining RBF and a single, static batch carries a simple combination of the complexities that RBF and batching carry discretely. However, when you combine RBF and “additive batching,” emergent edge cases and dangerous failure scenarios present themselves.

In additive RBF batching, the service provider introduces new outputs (and confirmed inputs) to a transaction in the mempool to incorporate new customer withdrawals into an unconfirmed transaction. This enables the service provider to give users the experience of an instantaneous withdrawal while still retaining much of the fee savings from doing large batches of customer withdrawals at once. As each customer requests a withdrawal, an output is added to the transaction in the mempool. This transaction continues to be updated until it confirms or reaches some other local optimum.

There are many strategies to this type of additive RBF batching. At CardCoins we took a safety-first approach to our implementation (with the help of Matthew Zipkin), the details of which we described in a blog post, RBF Batching at CardCoins: Diving into the Mempool’s Dark Reorg Forest.